IridologyA science, whereby a practitioner may recognise from markings or signs in the iris, various reflex conditions in corresponding organs and cells  of the body.

Drug deposits, inherent weakness and living habits of the patient may also be revealed through this modality.

This feature may aid a practitioner to offer preventative health measures along with other treatment recommendations.

Inherent markings show in the eye that an Iridologist may be able to use to ask questions relating to a patient’s existing symptoms or about the family history of a particular functional disorder  that may appear in the eye.  It offers an opportunity to avoid repeating family history by making lifestyle and nutritional adjustments.

Iridology assists us to confirm our conclusions that we make once we have taken a health history, reviewed any pathology tests and discussed family history.  It creates a comprehensive picture that we are able to disseminate to provide a unique health program individualised for each patient.

Every person is unique and that is what makes natural therapy so effective.  We care about the outcome and follow your progress with keen interest.

Three primary colour options: blue, brown and mixed colour

There are many shades within each group. All blue eyes are referred to as Lymphatic types. The many and varied brown shades are called Hematogenic types and the last group, which is often a mixture of the first two will be defined as Mixed types.

Structural type

The structure of the iris concerns the arrangement of the fibres, the position of the collarette and the dynamics of the pupil.

There are six major structural deviation types – each one revealing not only the primary physical characteristics but also the way we interact with our world. If the structure is found to be different from the so-called “normal”, consider this impact.


Assessment of deposits or accumulation signs. This category is referred to as the diathesis and identifies the individual potential to specific organ system problems. Signs in this group include extra colour, lymphatic tophi, a corneal arcus or any other markings on the anterior surface of the iris. The diathesis can be inherited or acquired. The highlight of the diathesis is that it prioritises the regulating influence of specific organs or organ systems. It clearly identifies the major organ or tissues involved. This potential can be activated or remain dormant.

Interestingly, not everyone has a diathesis, so if you have one, it becomes your primary focus. What was it in the previous three generations that made it necessary for you to have this diathesis or what is it in your own life that has contributed to the development of this diathesis? We refer to the organ or tissue area identified by the diathesis as the “primary nurture point” – and in doing so, hand back to the client the responsibility for their health and wellbeing.

Occasionally people are an archetypal example of one of the primary constitutional colours with a normal structure and no diathesis; the majority of people are blended types and have elements of more than one constitutional group, for example, a Mixed colour, Glandular structure with a Lipaemic diathesis. We would call this type a Mixed / Glandular / Lipaemic type.

A person’s temperament appears to be based on the inherent iris structure.

The primary structure is permanent. The pattern you were born with stays with you until you die. It identifies who you are and the type of parents you came from. You will soon learn that people with varying structures behave and react very differently. This is desirable since it affords us variety and amplifies the beauty of the ebb-and-flow nature of life. Constitutional Iridology enables an assessment of each person with curiosity rather than criticism and enables the avoidance of a judgemental approach that certain irises are weak or bad while others are strong or good. Constitutional Iridology assessment recognises the strengths and beauty in every type for what they individually bring to the lives of those around them.

The structure can indicate:

A specific triggered inherited condition.

The effect that structural weakness could have in predisposing the body to disease evolution. These conditions can be activated or remain dormant. The health issues of predecessors are listed in each constitutional type under the heading “Familial Issues”. Whether or not you develop this inherent potential to the best or worst scenario is influenced by the way you eat, drink, think, live and love. When the unique constitution is a blend of more than one type, such as a structural variation and a diathesis, not all the listed health dispositions will apply; however, some aspects of each type will be familiar. The most dominant influence in the constitutional aspects is always the diathesis.

The diathesis can indicate:

Diathesis: meaning: arrangement, disposition, tendency or condition. From Greek diatithenai; meaning dia = to dispose; tithenai = to place or set.

  • It is the inherited or acquired tendency of the body to react to disease in a specific organ system. This describes the variable ability to respond to similar stimuli in different people.

  • The diathesis indicates the pathway to disease.

  • Diatheses can be inherent or acquired and can be active or remain dormant.

Summary of the constitution


Our inherited constitution – the stuff from which we are made – a combination of our inherent strengths and weaknesses. This factor is largely one of genetics. We are a product of a mother and a father, each with individual characteristics due to the effect of life on their forebears.

Add to this our physical, emotional and spiritual capacity, each developed to a greater or lesser extent as our life unfolds and our experiences have their impact, and we become our own unique person.

We should see ourselves as a link in a progressive chain, which carries both the taints of the past and some hereditary patterns.

This gives each of us a constitutional inheritance and knowing our constitution can be valuable to us as it identifies potential weakness and enables us to support our vital force. While we cannot change our own constitution, we can influence the constitution we pass on to our future offspring – for better or for worse.

What causes constitutional weakness?

There are many negative influences including poor nutrition, being overfed or undernourished, habitual dehydration, and exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation, and ingestion of inorganic substances and pollution. The constitution is also affected by substance abuse with alcohol, drugs (whether recreational or prescription) and tobacco. Other influences would include working in a negative environment, lack of social activity, lack of sunlight, obesity and consumption of high amounts of refined sugar, dairy products and animal protein. Research has shown we are also affected by negative emotions such as shock, trauma, depression, stress, loneliness, anxiety and mental obsessions as well as low self-esteem.

Constitutional colour

The constitution is determined according to the colour and structure.

There are three primary colours types recognised in Iridology:

Blue Eyes:

  • These are most often seen in blonde haired, fair complexioned people.

Blue eyes generally indicate susceptibility to:

  • Childhood ear, nose and throat complaints and various allergies

  • An overactive lymphatic system, often with swollen glands

  • Upper respiratory weakness including asthma, bronchitis and sinusitis

  • Hyperacidity resulting in inflammatory conditions including arthritis and rheumatics

  • Hardening of arteries is common in advancing age

Brown Eyes:

  • Usually found in people with darker hair and olive complexion. Brown eyes generally indicate susceptibility to:

  • Digestive disorders

  • Flatulence

  • Liver congestion

  • Disturbed bile production

  • Glandular conditions

  • Dysglycaemia

  • Poor circulation

  • Haemorrhoids and thromboses

Mixed Colour

  • Mixed colour eyes generally indicate susceptibility to:

  • Sluggish liver and Gall bladder conditions

  • Erratic bowel transit time

  • Flatulence

  • Glandular conditions

  • Dysglycaemia

What assists constitutional strength?

Good nutrition, adequate exercise, fresh air and sunshine, correct laws of living, holistic medicine, underscored by a balance between things physical, emotional, spiritual and material including positivity of thoughts and actions, and an attitude that enables you to accept the ups and downs life dishes out to us without extreme reactions. A calm heart is the essence of life.

One of the basic principles of optimal health is that the balance of the internal forces can be adjusted by diet and lifestyle.

This is where iridology really shines. Iridology provides a non-invasive method of determining the constitution with its strengths and weaknesses that may assist people to make choices that may have a negative or positive effect on your future health prospects.

Genotype and Phenotype

The genotype results largely from genetic characteristics but is also influenced to some extent by the effects life had on our ancestors. These genotypes can be identified according to the structure and colour of the iris and can be graded into distinct categories, which predispose us to specific tendencies, both physical and emotional. Each of us is born with a unique constitution – our genotype. This is determined by an assessment of the primary colour and the structure.

The phenotype is the term used to describe the way we develop in our own lives according to our environment, diet and emotional experiences. To illustrate, take the hypothetical example of identical twins who start out with the same genotype but become separated at birth. One twin grows up in the country with hard physical work in fresh air and sunshine, and a diet based on home grown vegetables and grain fed meat. The environment was crime free and there was plenty of neighbourly interaction giving the child relative emotional security and confidence. The other twin grows up in a crowded city where the air quality was polluted, the crime rate high, and opportunity for fresh fruit and vegetables was limited by cost and location. Whilst academic education was a bonus, the choice of employment meant a sedentary lifestyle in a high stress environment. The genotype in each case would yield to the differing lifestyles and produce a different outcome for each of these twins.

In this sense, it can be likened to our tapestry. This illustrates the way the environmental, physical and emotional influences on the genotype shape the individual phenotype, producing a unique being along with our individual susceptibilities to illness or health. In other words “we are a product of what we do with what we get.”

The European system of eye diagnosis is based on an approach where the evaluation of iris colour, fibre structure and other various phenomena can categorise specific predispositions to the individual’s health profile

This information is based on the work of Toni Miller Integrated Iridology, Bernard Jensen, Joseph Deck, Josef Angerer and others.  I am forever indebted to the tireless work of my forbears, their dedication to our craft and unwavering professionalism.

This report is an observation of findings, colourings and signs in the eyes and is not a diagnostic tool.  Observations are used in conjunction with a thorough history and consultation.

Iridology does not diagnose disease and is used in the context of supportive information.

No responsibility is accepted by the author for what may or may not occur following this report.  It is designed for educational, informational purposes only.

The significance of colour

The principle of ‘less is more” applies when considering the possible influence of pigments.

IRIS SIGN: Random flecks of colour throughout the iris. These colours include various shades of brown, yellow, orange and black. Iridologists also call them psoric spots or freckles.

(Josef Deck referred to pigments as chromatic signs. Chromatosis is a term used to describe pigment discolouration.)

SIGNIFICANCE: When these spots are inherent, they allude to organ weakness associated with the family history. In this case, we can say they are trans-generational, meaning they occur in areas connected to familial health issues.

However, pigments have been observed to develop after exposure to noxious chemicals or physical injury. The colour of the pigment determines its significance. Some can indicate pathogenic disturbance in the reflex area but this will primarily be confined to single small examples. Random pigments reduce the individual significance of pigments and are a biomarker of a hormonal disturbance and a disposition to hypoglycaemia. Clinical observation shows that the person with multiple random pigments, regardless of colour, usually has a well-developed sweet tooth.

The colour of pigment in the iris determines which organ is exerting influence on the area in which you find it.

YELLOW: Kidneys

ORANGE: Pancreas

BROWN: Liver

Size matters!

The size of a pigment is not necessarily an indication of its relevance.

Research has indicated that small pigments can be more significant than larger ones.

Less is more!

A solitary pigment always has more significance than multiple pigments do. In fact, some authorities say that a pathological crisis is only seen in connection with small pigments.

Pigments as activation signs

Any pigment attached to a lacuna, a transversal, a tophi or any other iris sign can indicate activation of the disposition. For example, a pigmented tophi (white cloudy specks in the periphery of the iris) is more likely to indicate alteration to breast tissue than a non-pigmented tophi.

Random pigmentation reduces the probability of individual organ weakness and is a seen as a biomarker associated with dysglycaemia and hormonal imbalance. Consider the effects of pigmentation in two primary areas: the ciliary zone and the digestive zone.

Less than five percent of children have pigments but more than eighty percent of adults display this feature in the iris. This highlights that the iris is accumulative. The most common place for pigments to occur is in the gastrointestinal area.

To summarise – consider your iris to be your own personal tapestry. We start life with a particular pattern and colour. Throughout our lifetime we will be exposed to various liquids, solids, gases, toxins and experiences, and this exposure combines to add to the tapestry that is our iris. Our choices in life produce different colours in our eyes; thus, your iris is a reflection of the unique person you are.