đŸŒ±Here is more evidence of the detrimental effects of sugar consumption, but more importantly, as a follow up to my previous recent posts, the importance of fibre in our diet

đŸŒ±There is a notable effect on the metabolism of antibiotics in the presence of glucose evidenced in this recent study

đŸŒ±Here are some Highlights of the findings for those who like to skim……

‱Antibiotics perturb the metabolic capacity of the (murine) gut microbiome

‱Amoxicillin elevates expression of starch utilization genes in B. thetaiotaomicron

‱Fibre supplementation protects B. thetaiotaomicron from amoxicillin in vitro

‱Host diet has a major effect on the response of the microbiome to amoxicillin


Treatments with broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs has been shown to induce rapid, though typically transient, reductions in bacterial counts
and diversity within the microbiome.

Antibiotic resistance and adverse reactions to their administration has been research extensively.
C. difficile is a well known bacterium that is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon.
Patients taking antibiotics are at risk of becoming infected with C. difficile as antibiotics can disrupt the normal bacteria of the bowel,
thus allowing C. difficile to become established in the colon.




This disruption, broadly referred to as dysbiosis, can
lead to decreased colonization resistance against various fungal
and bacterial pathogens, leading to a number of opportunistic infections

Dysbiosis is a common term in Naturopathic circles.

Treatment commonly involves restoration of the microbiome.

This is achieved by dietary modification, often with the inclusion of fibre


  • Production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, in the gut microbiome
    • is required for optimal health but is frequently limited by the lack of fermentable fibre in the diet
  • Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid made by good bacteria in the gut as a byproduct fibre digestion.
  • Butyrate signals the immune system that the gut bacteria are in the desirable range.
  • When the butyrate level becomes low due to inadequate fibre intake, the body produces an inflammatory reaction
  • A plant based diet, rich in fibre and resistant starch, produces and feeds good gut bacteria.
  • A  diet high in fibre may protect against colon cancer because of the butyrate generated in the colon by bacterial fermentation of non-starch polysaccharides

Firstly, what is resistant starch?

Resistant starch is dietary starch that ‘resists’ digestion in the small intestine.

Whereas most starch we eat is quickly and extensively digested in the upper gut, a fraction survives, passing through to the large bowel.

In the large bowel, resistant starch then provides fuel for the resident bacteria (microbiome), which break it down (ferment) to products that help support a healthy digestive system and protect against gut and other diseases.

    • Starch escaping the small bowel acts as a source of food for the ‘good bacteria’ in the large bowel


  • Fuels their growth and activity, which leads to positive changes in the micro-environment of the large bowel
  • Resistant starch fermentation favours the production of butyrate, a major bacterial metabolite fundamental for keeping the gut healthy and functioning normally.
  • Butyrate is the preferred fuel for cells lining the gut and ensuring the integrity of the gut wall, helping to protect it against cancer and other serious digestive diseases.
  • Resistant starch also offers health benefits beyond those in the gut, such as helping to reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin.
  • There is strong evidence demonstrating that Resistant Starch  lowers whole body and visceral adiposity.
    • The magnitude of these changes in adiposity are very large and sufficient to independently improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce the risk of diabetes, Cardio Vascular Disease, and certain cancers.

Research shows that resistant starch has many attributes which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass.

The available data would suggest that, similar to rats, Resistant Starch  intake does not change total energy intake in humans relative to a DS diet. This conclusion is supported by acute human studies, which show that RS causes no change in subjective satiety scores or total energy intake at an ad libitum meal and/or over 24 hours

Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a “weight loss wonder food”

  • The inclusion of resistant starch foods has shown to be effective in weight loss by assisting the balance of the microbiome, BMR and energy, increasing fat burning and reduce fat storage

Resistant starch and inulin are complex carbohydrates that are fermented by the microflora and known to increase colonic absorption of minerals in animals. The fermentation of these substrates in the large bowel to short-chain fatty acids is the main reason for this increase in mineral absorption



What is a prebiotic?

A prebiotic is a type of fibre (but not all fibre is prebiotic).  To be classified as a prebiotic, the fibre must pass through the GI tract undigested and stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain ‘good’ bacteria in the large intestine.

Which foods are naturally high in prebiotics?


Dietary fibre classified as having high prebiotic effects includes inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (fructans , FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS).

Table 1 outlines food sources of prebiotics

Table 1

Vegetables Jerusalem artichokes, chicory, garlic, onion, leek, shallots, spring onion, asparagus, beetroot, fennel bulb, green peas, snow peas, sweetcorn, savoy cabbage
Legumes Chickpeas, lentils, red kidney beans, baked beans, soybeans
Fruit Custard apples, nectarines, white peaches, persimmon, tamarillo, watermelon, rambutan, grapefruit, pomegranate.  Dried fruit (eg. dates, figs)
Bread / cereals / snacks Barley, rye bread, rye crackers, pasta, gnocchi, couscous, wheat bran, wheat bread, oats
Nuts and seeds Cashews, pistachio nuts
Other Human breast milk

Prebiotics were originally defined in 1995 by Gibson and Roberfroid as “a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improves host health.

  • Clinical trials reveal that GOS (Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), also known as oligogalactosyllactose, oligogalactose, oligolactose or transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), belong to the group of prebiotics, inulin, xylooligosaccharide, and arabinoxylan oligoscaharides induced blooms in Bifidobacterium spp.

Probiotics have shown promise for a variety of health purposes, including prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (including diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile), prevention of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis in premature infants, treatment of infant colic, treatment of periodontal disease, and induction or maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

Research has shown that probiotics

  • are strain specific

  • can support digestive health and immune function, including reducing antibiotic‐associated diarrhoea

  • improve resilience to infections

  • improve digestion of lactose

Other benefits
  • The following sections summarize the research on probiotics for some of the conditions for which they’ve been studied.

Gastrointestinal Conditions

Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile Infection


Diarrhea Caused by Cancer Treatment

Diverticular Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Traveller’s Diarrhea

Conditions in Infants

Infant Colic

Sepsis in Infants

Dental Disorders

Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

Periodontal Diseases (Gum Disease)

Conditions Related to Allergy

Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)


Atopic Dermatitis

Prevention of Allergies

Other Conditions


Hepatic Encephalopathy

Upper Respiratory Infections

Urinary Tract Infections


  • Ensure that you are taking the right strain for the condition that you are attempting to alleviate


ref : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.08.020